Can autism be helped by gluten-free, casein-free diets?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social communication and repetitive behavior patterns. While the exact pathology of ASD is unknown, there may be a connection between diet and ASD behavioral symptoms.
Many dietary supplements have been investigated as potential treatments, including omega-3 fatty acids, melatonin, vitamin D, and a combination of vitamin B6 and magnesium; but the gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diet has become one of the more popular interventions among parents with ASD children.
Survey have shown that anywhere from 20% to 70% of respondents have tried a GFCF diet. Parents often report symptom improvement when placing their children on this diet, but what do results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) tell us?

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